Genius of the AND

The Genius of the AND

First, leaders of endurung great companies are comfortable with paradox i.e., having the ability to embrace two opposed ideas in the mind at the same time. Second, they don’t oppress themselves with the “Tyranny of the OR” e.g., to believe that things must be either A OR B, but not both. The best leaders liberate themselves with the Genius of the AND—the ability to embrace both extremes of a number of dimensions at the same time. In the words of F. Scott Fitzgerald, “The test of a first-rate intelligence is the ability to hold two opposed ideas in the mind at the same time, and still retain the ability to function.”

Some Genius of the AND examples:

Disciplined And Creative
Empirical validation And Bold moves
Prudence And BHAGs (Big Harry Audacious Goals)
Paranoid And Courageous
Ferociously ambitious And Not egocentric
Severe performance standards, no excuses And Never going too far, able to hold back
On a 20 Mile March And Fire bullets, then cannonballs
Threshold innovation And One fad behind
Cannot predict the future And Prepred for what they cannot predict
Go slow when they can And Go fast when they must
Disciplined thought And Decisive action
Zoom out And Zoom in
Adhering to a SMaC recipe And Amending a SMaC recipe (Specific, Methodical, Consistent)
Consistency And Change
Never count on luck And Get a high ROL when luck comes

Organizational Behavior Glossary U–Z


Uncertainty avoidance, a national culture attribute that describes the extent to which a society feels threatened by uncertain and ambiguous situations and tries to avoid them

Unfreezing, changing to overcome the pressures of both individual resistance and group conformity

Unity of command, the idea that a subordinate should have only one superior to whom he or she is directly responsible

Utilitarianism, a system in which decisions are made solely on the basis of their outcomes or consequences and to provide the greatest good for the greatest number


Value system, a hierarchy based on a ranking of an individual’s values in terms of their intensity

Values, basic convictions that a specific mode of conduct or end-state of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct or end-state of existence

Variable-pay program, a pay plan that bases a portion of an employee’s pay on some individual and/or organizational measure of performance

Virtual organization, a small, core organization that outsources major business functions

Virtual teams, teams that use computer technology to tie together physically dispersed members to achieve a common goal

Vision, a long-term strategy for attaining a goal or goals

Vision statement, a formal articulation of an organization’s vision or mission

Voice, dissatisfaction expressed through active and constructive attempts to improve conditions


Wellness programs, organizationally supported programs that focus on the employee’s total physical and mental condition

Whistle-blowers, individuals who report unethical or illegal practices by their employers to outsiders

Work group, a group that interacts primarily to share information and to make decisions to help each group member perform within his or her area of responsibility

Work specialization, the degree to which tasks in an organization are subdivided into separate jobs

Work teams, a group whose individual efforts result in a performance that is greater than the sum of the individual inputs

Workforce diversity, the concept that organizations are becoming more heterogeneous in terms of gender, age, race, ethnicity, sexual orientation, and inclusion of other diverse groups


Zero-sum approach, an approach to bargaining in which the gains made by one side come at the expense of the other side, and vice versa

Organizational Behavior Glossary R–T


Rational decision-making model, a decision-making model that describes how individuals should behave in order to maximize some outcome

Referent power, influence based on identification with a person
who has desirable resources or personal traits

Refreezing, stabilizing a change intervention by balancing and restraining forces
Relationship conflict, conflict based on interpersonal relationships

Representative participation, a system in which workers participate in organizational decision making through a small group of representative employees

Resources, things within an individual’s control that can be used to resolve demands

Restraining forces, forces that hinder movement from the existing equilibrium

Reward power, compliance achieved based on the ability to distribute rewards that others view as valuable

Risk aversion, the tendency to prefer a sure gain of a moderate amount over a riskier outcome, even if the riskier outcome might have a higher expected payoff

Rituals, repetitive sequences of activities that express and reinforce the key values of the organization

Role conflict, when an individual finds that compliance with one role requirement may make it difficult to comply with another

Role expectations, how others believe a person should act in a given situation

Role perception, an individual’s view of how he or she is supposed to act in a given situation

Roles, a set of expected behavior patterns attributed to someone occupying a given position in a social unit


Selective perception, any characteristic that makes a person, object, or event stand out will increase the probability that it will be perceived

Self-actualization, the drive to become what a person is capable of becoming

Self-concordance, the degree to which people’s reasons for pursuing goals are consistent with their interests and core values

Self-determination theory, a theory of motivation that is concerned with the beneficial effects of intrinsic motivation and the harmful effects of extrinsic motivation

Self-efficacy, an individual’s belief that he OF she is capable of performing a task

Self-managed work teams, groups of 10–15 people who take on responsibilities of their former supervisors

Self-monitoring, a personality trait that measures an individual’s ability to adjust his or her behavior to external, situational factors

Self-serving bias, the tendency for individuals to attribute their own successes to internal factors and put the blame for failures on external factors

Short-term orientation, a national culture attribute that emphasizes the past and present, respect for tradition, and fulfillment of social obligations

Simple structure, an organization structure characterized by a low degree of departmentalization, wide spans of control, authority centralized in a single person, and little formalization

Skill variety, the degree to which a job requires a variety of different activities

Skill-based pay plan, a pay plan that sets pay levels on the basis of how many skills employees have or how many jobs they can do

Social loafing, the tendency for individuals to expend less effort when working collectively than when working individually

Social psychology, focuses on people’s influences on one another

Socialization, a process that adapts employees to the organization’s culture

Socialized charismatic leadership, a leadership concept that states that leaders convey values that are other-centered versus self-centered and role-model ethical conduct

Sociology, the study of people in relation to their social environment or culture

Span of control, the number of subordinates a manager can efficiently and effectively direct

Status, a socially defined position or rank given to group or group members by others

Status characteristics theory, a theory that states that differences in status characteristics create status hierarchies within groups

Stereotyping, when we judge someone on the basis of our perception of the group to which he or she belongs

Storming stage, the second stage in group development, characterized by intragroup conflict

Stress, a dynamic condition in which an individual is confronted with an opportunity, a demand, or a resource related to what the individual desires and for which the outcome is perceived to be both uncertain and important

Strong culture, a culture in which the core values are intensely held and widely shared

Subcultures, mini-cultures within an organization, typically defined by department designations and geographical separation

Substitutes, attributes, such as experience and training, that can replace the need for a leader’s support or ability to create structure

Surface acting, hiding one’s inner feelings and foregoing emotional expressions in response to display rules

Survey feedback, the use of questionnaires to identify discrepancies among member perceptions; discussion follows and remedies are suggested

Systematic study, looking at relationships, attempting to attribute causes and effects, and drawing conclusions based on scientific evidence


Task conflicts, conflicts over content and goals of the work

Task groups, individuals working together to complete a task or job

Task identity, the degree to which job requires completion of a whole and identifiable piece of work

Task significance, the degree to which a job has a substantial impact on the lives or work of other people

Task structure, the degree to which the job assignments are procedurized

Team building, high interaction among team members to increase trust and openness

Team efficacy, the degree to which the members of a team believe in their ability to achieve future success

Technology, the way in which an organization transfers its inputs into outputs

Telecommuting, working from home at least two days a week on a computer that is linked to the employer’s office

Terminal values, desirable end-states of existence; the goals a person would like to achieve during his or her lifetime

Text messaging (TM), the transfer and understanding of meaning

Theory X, the assumption that employees dislike work, are lazy, dislike responsibility, and must be coerced to perform

Theory Y, the assumption that employees like work, are creative, seek responsibility, and can exercise self-direction

Three-component model of creativity, the proposition that individual creativity require expertise, creative thinking skills, and intrinsic task motivation

Traditional view of conflict, the belief that all conflict is harmful and must be avoided

Trait theories of leadership, theories that consider personal qualities and characteristics that differentiate leaders from non-leaders

Transactional leaders, leaders who guide or motivate their followers in the direction of established goals by clarifying the role and task requirements

Transformational leaders, leaders who inspire followers to transcend their own self-interests and who are capable of having a profound and extraordinary effect on followers

Trust, a positive expectation that another will not act opportunistically

Two-factor theory, a theory that relates intrinsic factors to job satisfaction, while associating extrinsic factor with dissatisfaction; also called motivation-hygiene theory

Type A personality, aggressive involvement in a chronic, incessant struggle to achieve more and more in less and less time and, if necessary, against the opposing efforts of other things or other people

Organizational Behavior Glossary N–P


Narcissism, the tendency to be arrogant, have a grandiose sense of self-importance, require excessive admiration, and have a sense of entitlement

Need for achievement (nAch), the drive to excel, to achieve in relationship to a set of standards, and to thrive to succeed

Need for affiliation (nAff), the desire for friendly and close interpersonal relationships

Need for power (nPow), the need to make others behave in a way in which they would not have behaved otherwise

Negative affect, a mood dimension that consists of emotions such as nervousness, stress, and anxiety at the high end and relaxation, tranquility, and poise at the low end

Neglect, dissatisfaction expressed through allowing conditions to worsen

Negotiation, a process in which two or more parties exchange goods or services and attempt to agree on the exchange rate for them

Neutralizers, attributes that make it impossible for leader behavior to make any difference to follower outcomes

Nominal group technique, a group decision-making method in which individuals meet face-to-face to pool their judgments in a systematic but independent fashion

Normative commitment, an obligation to remain with the organization for moral or ethical reasons

Norming stage, the third stage in group development, characterized by close relationships and cohesiveness

Norms, acceptable standards of behavior that are shared by the group’s members


Openness to experience, a personality dimension that characterizes someone in terms of imagination, sensitivity, and curiosity

Organic model, a structure that is flat, uses cross-hierarchical and cross-functional teams, has low formalization, possesses a comprehensive information network, and relies on participative decision making

Organizational behavior (OB), afield of study that investigates the impact that individuals, groups, and structures have on a behavior within organizations, for the purpose of applying such knowledge toward improving an organization’s effectiveness

Organizational climate, the shared perceptions organizational
members have about their organization and work environment

Organizational commitment, the degree to which an
employee identifies with a particular organization and its goals and wishes to maintain membership in the organization

Organizational culture, a system of shared meaning held by members that distinguishes the organization from other organizations

Organizational demography, the degree to which members of a work unit share a common demographic attribute, such as age, sex, race, educational level, or length of service in an organization, and the impact of this attribute on turnover

Organizational development (OD), a collection of planned change interventions, built on humanistic-democratic values, that seeks to improve organizational effectiveness and employee well-being

Organizational justice, an overall perception of what is fair in the workplace, composed of distributive, procedural, and interactional justice

Organizational politics, the use of power to affect decision making in an organization, often based on self-serving and organizationally unsanctioned behaviors

Organizational structure, how job tasks are formally divided, grouped, and coordinated


Participative management, a process in which subordinates share a significant degree of decision-making power with their immediate superiors

Perceived conflict, awareness by one or more parties of the existence of conditions that create opportunities for conflicts to arise

Perceived organizational support (POS), the degree to which employees believe the organization values their contributions and cares about their well-being

Perception, a process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions to give meaning to their environment

Perceptual distortions, errors in perceiving situations based on phenomena like overconfidence bias, anchoring bias, confirmation bias, availability bias, escalation of commitment, risk aversion, and hindsight bias

Performing stage, the fourth stage in group development, during which the group is fully functional

Personal power, influence derived from an individual’s characteristics

Personality, the sum total of ways in which an individual reacts to and interacts with others

Personality traits, Enduring characteristics that describe an individual’s behavior

Personality—job fit theory, a theory that identifies six personality types and proposes that the fit between personality type and occupational environment determines satisfaction amid turmoil

Piece-rate pay plan, plan in which employees are paid fixed sum for each unit of production completed

Political behavior, activities that are not required as part of one’s formal role in the organization but that influence, or attempt to influence, the distribution of advantages and disadvantages within the organization

Politicking, when people use their influence to taint the facts in an ambiguous environment to support their goals and interests

Politics, when employees convert their power into action to exert influence, earn rewards, and advance their careers.

Position power, influence derived from one formal structural position in the organization; includes power to hire, fire, discipline, promote, and give salary increases

Positive affect, a mood dimension consisting of positive emotions such as excitement, self-assurance, and cheerfulness on the high end and boredom, sluggishness, and tiredness at the low end

Positive organizational culture, a culture that emphasizes building on employee strengths, rewards more than it punishes, and emphasizes individual vitality and growth

Positivity offset, the tendency of most individuals to experience a mildly positive mood at zero input (when nothing in particular is going on)

Power, a capacity that A has to influence the behavior of B so that B acts in accordance with A’s wishes

Power distance, degree to which people in a country accept that power in institutions and organizations is distributed unequally

Power tactics, ways in which individuals translate power bases into specific actions

Prearrival stage, the period of learning in the socialization process that occurs before a new employee joins the organization

Proactive personality, people who identify opportunities, show initiative, take action, and persevere until meaningful change occurs

Problem-solving teams, a group of 5 to 12 employees from the same department who meet for a few hours each week to discuss ways of improving quality, efficiency, and the work environment

Procedural justice, the perceived fairness of the process used to determine the distribution of rewards

Process conflict, conflict over how work gets done

Process consultation (PC), a meeting in which a consultant assists a client in understanding process events with which he or she must deal and identifying processes that need improvement

Production-oriented leader, a leader who emphasizes technical or task aspects of the job

Profit-sharing plans, organization-wide program that distributes compensation based on some established formula designed around a company’s profitability

Psychological empowerment, employees’ belief in the degree to which they affect their work environments, their competence, the meaningfulness of their jobs, and the perceived autonomy in their work

Psychology, the science that seeks to measure, explain, and sometimes change the behavior of humans and other animals

Pygmalion effect, a form of self-fulfilling prophecy in which believing something can make it true

Organizational Behavior Glossary J–M


Job characteristics model (JCM), a model that proposes that any job can be described in terms of five core job dimensions: skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, and feedback

Job enrichment, the vertical expansion of jobs, which increases the degree to which the worker controls the planning, execution, and evaluation of the work

Job involvement, the degree to which a person identifies with a job, actively participates in it, and considers performance important to self-worth

Job rotation, the periodic shifting of an employee from one task to another

Job satisfaction, a positive feeling about one job resulting from an evaluation of its characteristics

Job sharing, an arrangement that allows two or more individuals to split a traditional 40-hour-a-week job


Leader—member exchange (LMX) theory, a theory that supports leaders’ creation of in-groups and out-groups; subordinates with in-group status will have higher performance ratings, less turnover, and greater job satisfaction

Leader—member relations, the degree of confidence, trust, and respect subordinates have in their leader

Leadership, the ability to influence a group toward the achievement of a vision or set of goals

Least preferred co-worker (LPC) questionnaire, an instrument that purports to measure whether a person is task or relationship oriented

Legitimate political behavior, normal everyday politics

Legitimate power, the power a person receives as a result of his or her position in the formal hierarchy of an organization

Long-term orientation, a national culture attribute that emphasizes the future, thrift, and persistence

Low-context culture, a culture that relies heavily on words to convey meaning in communication

Loyalty, dissatisfaction expressed by passively waiting for conditions to improve


Machiavellianism, the degree to which an individual is pragmatic, maintains emotional distance, and believes that ends can justify means

Management by objectives (MBO), a program that encompasses specific goals, participatively set, for an explicit time period, with feedback on goal progress

Masculinity, a national culture attribute describing the extent to which the culture favors traditional masculine work roles of achievement, power, and control; societal values are characterized by assertiveness and materialism

Material symbols, objects that serve as signals of organization’s culture, including the size of offices, executive perks, and attire.

Matrix structure, a structure that creates dual lines of authority and combine functional and product departmentalization

McClelland’s theory of needs, a theory stating that achievement, power, and affiliation are three important needs that help explain motivation

Mechanistic model, a structure characterized by extensive
departmentalization, high formalization, a limited information network, and centralization

Mental models, team members’ knowledge beliefs about how the work gets done by the team

Merit-based pay plan, a pay plan based on performance appraisal ratings

Metamorphosis stage, the stage in the socialization process in which a new employee changes and adjusts to the job, work group, and organization

Moods, feelings that tend to be less intense than emotions and that lack a contextual stimulus

Motivation, the process that accounts for an individual’s intensity, direction, and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal

Movement, a change process that transforms the organization from the status quo to a desired end-state

Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), a personality test that taps four characteristics and classifies people into 1 of 16 personality types

Organizational Behavior Glossary G–I


Gain sharing, a formula-based group incentive plan

Goal-setting theory, a theory that says that specific and difficult goals, with feedback, lead to higher performance

Grapevine, an organization’s informal communication network

Groups, two or more individuals, interacting and interdependent, who have come together to achieve particular objectives

Groupshift, a change in decision risk between a group’s decision and an individual decision that a member within that group would make; the shift can be toward either conservatism or greater risk

Groulithink, a phenomenon in which the norm for consensus overrides the realistic appraisal of alternative courses of action


Halo effect, the tendency to draw a general impression about an individual on the basis of a single characteristic

Heredity, factors determined at conception; one’s biological, physiological, and inherent psychological makeup

Hierarchy of needs, Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of five needs—physiological, safety, social, esteem, and self-actualization—in which, as each need is substantially satisfied, the next need becomes dominant

High-context culture, culture that relies heavily on nonverbal and subtle situational cues in communication

Hindrance stressors, stressors that keep you from reaching your goals (for example, red tape, office politics, confusion over job responsibilities)

Hindsight bias, tendency for us to believe falsely, after an outcome is actually known, that we would have accurately predicted the outcome

Hygiene factors, factors—such as company policy and administration, supervision, and salary—that, when adequate in a job placate workers; when these factors are adequate, people will not be dissatisfied


Idea champions, people who actively and enthusiastically promote the idea, build support, overcome resistance, and ensure that the innovation is implemented

Illegitimate political behavior, actions that violate the implied rules of the game

Illusory correlation, the tendency of people to correlate two events when in reality there is no connection

Imitation strategy, a strategy that seeks to move into new products or new markets only after their viability has already been proven

Impression management (IM), process by which individuals attempt to control the impression others form of them

Individualism, the degree to which people prefer to act as individuals rather than as members of groups and believe in individual rights above all else

Informal channels, communication channels that are created spontaneously and that emerge as responses to individual choices

Information overload, a condition in which information inflow exceeds an individual’s processing capacity

Initiating structure, the extent to which a leader is likely to define and structure his or her role and those of employees in the search for goal attainment

Innovation, a new idea applied to initiating or improving a product, process, or service

Innovation strategy, a strategy that emphasizes the introduction of major new products and services

Institutionalization, a condition that occurs when an organization takes on a life of its own, apart from any of its members, and acquires immortality

Instrumental values, preferable codes of behavior or means of achieving one’s terminal values

Integrative bargaining, negotiation that seeks one or more settlements that can create a win/win solution

Intentions, decisions to act in a given way

Interacting groups, typical groups in which members interact with each other face-to-face

Interactional justice, the perceived degree to which individual is treated with dignity, concern, and respect

Interactionist view of conflict, the belief that conflict is not only a positive force in a group but is also an absolute necessity for a group to perform effectively

Interest groups, people working together to attain a specific objective with which each is concerned

Intergroup development (ID), efforts to change the attitudes, stereotypes, and perceptions that groups have of each other

Intuition, a gut feeling not necessarily supported by research

Intuitive decision making, an unconscious process created out of distilled experience